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Full text of "Speedball Text Book - Lettering . Poster Design . For Pen or Brush"

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EDITION 



GOOD LETTERING 

IS AS ESSENTIAL IN MAKING 
EFFECTIVE POSTERS AS IT IS 
IN DISPLAY ADVERTISING 

ANYONE WHO CAN WRITE CAN LEARN 
TO LETTER ,fOR NO UNUSUAL TALENT 
IS NEEDED. STUDENTS WHO INVEST 
SUFFICIENT TIME TO MASTER THE 
FUNDAMENTALS AS PRESENTED IN 
TfllS MANUAL WILL ENJOY RICHER. 
RETURNS Q^, THEIR INVESTMENT 
THAN CAN B^' DERIVED FROM ANY 
SIMILAR INVESTMENT IN THE ALLIED 
ARTS. NO ART COURSE SHOULD 
BE COMPLETE WITHOUT A WORKING 
KNOWLEDGE OF THE BASIC ALPHABETS 
AND THE TOOLS 9EST SUITED TO 
THIEIR PRODUCTION/ 

steady em|)loyment few occufiations offer the 
opfjortunities enjoyed by poster artists who are 
able to do good lettering at a commercial speed, 



Slant Position of hand when, 
making Italic letters with^ 
eithC'i^the Stiile'^C or ^ 
Sttjle'D''— ^ 





^ ^^Tiiree points of contact^ 



ybu will do better work 
when you sit erect and 
do not lean on tKe pen, 




-SHOWING > HOW - TO - 
* HOLD -THE- SPEEPBALL* 
i -PEN AND* THE BRUSH 




LETTERIMG 
BRUSHGS ARE 
HELD BETWEEN 
INDEX FINGIIR. 
AND THUMB TO 
GIVE A ROU'NG 
MANIPULATION 

illiisrrailons and mcihoiib of instruction apponrin^in this lxx>k copy i iv];'lu 195!i! by Ross i\Goc/it^^ 

'Publisked tn llSA huVuni 'hnlSo. cfCamJen,l,J{cu>Jcrscif^ MlYubluiiUonri^hia reserved * AiiWuj'acuireri cf S}\(dball froduct$ - ^Pens, Inks/Text'dooh^ QnoUum. CuU rs.cte. 



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leachers, students and craftsmen will find in this book a comprehensive guide to practical lettering 
and poster art. Whether working for a livelihood or for the pleasure it affords, these alphabets and 
examples will eliminate much unproductive effort. The beginner will make better progress following 
the order of practice as given starting with page eight, see footnotes — use the style of pen or brush 
suggested, making letters large enough to develop an arm movement — the smaller size pens can be used 
for smaller letters as soon as the formation of the alphabet has been learned with the larger pens. 

Merchandising depends so much upon sho-cards for quick turnover that we seldom see displays 
without them. Supplying this demand has created profitable positions for experienced letterers every- 
where. The fact that skilled letterers can do about fifty per cent more work with the pen, explains why 
most of the cards are pen-lettered. It is quite a feat to letter a mass of copy on a sho-card with a brush 
and keep it uniform yet the artist cannot ask more for a brush masterpiece than he would get for a good 
pen job. When the work appears uniform, easy to read, and is ready on time, the customer is seldom 
concerned with how it was made. 

The following will acquaint the student with the different style pens and their use. 

The Style "A" Speedball pen was the first tool of its kind, designed to produce square poster letters 
single stroke. The Style "B" pen was next developed for single stroke round Gothics. Then came 
the vogue for the graceful Roman and Italic alphabets which were originally created by the ^Jalians 
with hand-cut reed pens. This called for a lettering tool that would duplicate the strokes of this flexible 
reed. The Style "C" Speedball pen was the first to successfully meet these requirements. The next period 
saw the development of bold poster Roman alphabets. These were first made with the round tip pens, 
building up all thicker elements with additional strokes. This "building up" took so much extra time 
that sho-card men asked for a tool to produce these thick-and-thicker alphabets as easily and quickly 
as the Style "C" pen did the thick-and-thin letters. 

Style "D" Speedball pens proved satisfactory. The oval marking tips made them remarkably easy 
to handle. The newest Speedball pens are trade marked "Flicker." Their ink reservoirs are hinged. 
Both upper and lower feeders "flick" open simultaneously so they can be wiped clean. Flicker pens 
and their feeders are both made of pen steel, tempered to give longer service. FB-6 is equipped with 
ruling flanges for drafting work. All Speedball pens are equipped with triple reservoir ink retainers. 
The main reservoirs load with a dip and handle a generous supply of ink. The ink is fed to the auxiliary 
reservoir above the tip -as it is used, which also acts as an automatic check to prevent blots by spreading 
the ink evenly over the entire surface, thus insuring perfect strokes at any speed. 

■ To successfully handle any tool, it is helpful for the operator to become familiar with its limita- 
tions as well as its potentialities. In making letters by hand, choose the size and style of pen 
that will produce their elements with the fewest strokes. There is a Speedball pen designed for each of 
the different alphabets. It is never clever to try to form letters with a pen or brush not adapted to their 
production. Such efforts are generally misdirected and usually result in a failure or a wasteful expendi- 
ture of time and effort. Besides the Speedball pens every letterer's kit should include two or more red 
sable sho-card brushes, sizes 10-12 and 14, to take care of the letters that are too large for the pens. 

The use of a T-square, ruler and compass in drawing the letters of some alphabets is necessary. 
The T-squa,re or ruler is always recommended for guide lines. Letters that are ruled look mechanical 
and are seldom a good substitute for freehand work. The freedom, grace and individual beauty in hand 
lettering usually come with regular practice. Training the hand, arm and fingers to act in unison is 
accomplished by a coordination of movements much the same as those taught in penmanship. 

Without the proper inks it is difficult to get the best results from any pen. Thin, watery, trans- 
parent inks or thick, gummy, sticky mixtures never produce good results. Most standard brands of 
waterproof black drawing ink can be used for lettering purposes. When good lettering inks are not 
available, thin opaque colors will be found satisfactory. 

Sho-card colors prepared for brush use will work satisfactorily in pens when thinned to a free- 
flowing consistency with a little of this solution — water, nine ounces; alcohol, one ounce; gum mucilage, 
one ounce; and a few drops of glycerine. Diluted sho-card colors must be kept well stirred to flow 
freely from the pen. Do not prepare a large quantity because they work best when freshly mixed. When 
using white or opaque colors or inks, brush pens occasionally with a wet toothbrush to prevent the 
feeders from getting clogged with dried ink. Crusted pens should be scraped 
or brushed clean before using. 



BBj^fS^i^,!^-;^^ The best way to clean lettering or drawing pens 

\ ^^^^^"""^^ i^ fo scrub them gently with a wet toothbrush. 

0 \ 

j» Artists who desire a specially prepared ink that has proved 

1 ■ 1 exceptionally successful in this type of drawing and lettering 

pen can obtain Speedball inks from their stationer or art 
dealer. They are made in all the brilliant colors of the rain- 



LIFT FEEDER 
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bow, plus black and white. 



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ELEMENTARY GOTHIC PRACTICE EXERCISES 



Rule top and bottom guide lines for cacli liii 



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Use .my smootli surfaced paper or cardboard. 



Hold the pen firmly between the two first fingers and thumb 



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Aim try iheiv half-inch high with size 3, and a quarter-inch high with sizes 4 and J5 pens. 




STYLE C'SPEEDBALL PEN 




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Style C'Speedball Pen Roman 

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Sketch letters first with pencil and then ink ivith B-5 or B-6 pen. 



THE ROMAN ALPHABET 



Roman is by far our most beautiful alphabet. It radiates a dignified atmosphere of reliability, 
elegance, and refinement desirable in many classes of advertising. It is especially adapted to conserva- 
tive publicity and the advertising of quality merchandise. Roman characters furnish the most stable 
foundation for individualistic conceptions or type innovations in both vertical and the Italic styles. 

The Roman alphabet is an evolution of ancient Egyptian writings. Its development has been 
traced back some five or six thousand years through the writings of the Greeks, Phoenicians and 
Persians. The inscription on the base of the Trajan Column in Rome (circa 114 A.D.) records its 
best early development. Roman lower case came as a later development, about the fifteenth or sixteenth 
century, and has been subjected to improvement or modification by type designers ever since. 

The way the original reed pen was shaped and held by the early Italian scribes accounts in some 
measure for the varying order of the thick and thin strokes as they appear in the diflPerent letters. For 
example, the two vertical strokes in the letter N are thin, while in the letter H they are thick and in the 
letter M they are thin and thick, etc. This irregular order made the Roman capitals very tricky and diffi- 
cult to produce with speed and was one reason for the origination of the French half-uncial, a speed 
writing which appeared in the fifth and sixth century. This half uncial was a faster, more legible style of 
writing used in the revision of many church books. It was a cross between a crude anticipation of our 
present-day Roman lower case and the unfinished Roman capitals as we know them today. 

As Roman letters became standardized and were adapted to printing, their most noticeable modi- 
fication was a slight spur, or serif, added to the terminals, increasing both their beauty and legibility. 
A study of present-day styles shows that most of our alphabets were created simply by changing the 
design of the serif or by adding a few ornamental touches to the body of the letter (see pages 4-12-31). 

For descriptive copy or for words of special emphasis, Italics can be employed eflPectively. Italic 
letters are simply slanted vertical letters. In Roman Italics it will be found that the thick and thin 
elements follow very closely the natural stroke of the writing hand using a chisel-tipped or flat 
flexible pen. DiflPerent shaped tips and oblique holding account for most of their accepted variations. 

It is interesting to see how cleverly the old scribes took advantage of the natural action of a reed 
pen in the designing of their book alphabets. They wasted no strokes and did little patching up, a 
good example for any of us to follow. Letterers must choose the tool best suited to the production of 
each diflPerent style of letter if they want to be successful. No practical craftsman will use a stiflP, blunt 
pen to imitate letters that were created with a flexible, chisel-edged pen, any more than a jeweler will 
try to engrave a ring with a pocket knife. Choosing the right tool for a job is half the battle. It is poor 
business to work under unnecessary mechanical handicaps. Bold letters are best made with pens having 
broad bent-up marking tips, while thick and thin letters are made with flexible chisel-end tips. The pen 
best suited to the job will, in most cases, form the diflPerent elements that make up the letter in a single 
stroke without retouching. Built up or outlined letters are about the only exception to this rule. 

In learning the "single stroke" Roman, analyzed on pages 14-15-16-17, study the individual letters 
carefully before using the pen. Note where strokes are started and terminated, their order of construc- 
tion, and how the pen is manipulated in producing them. Use a No. 2 Style C pen, making a page of 
each letter. Next make several pages of the full alphabets, both lower and upper cases, combining a 
smooth arm movement with a flexible manipulation of the pen. Letters should be one inch high at 
first, ruling three guide lines for each line of copy. Keep the serifs as uniform as possible and strive to 
equalize the space between (he letters as you work. Good lettering should appear even and never spotty. 
The illustrations on page 69 oflPer a solution for this problem. 

Next practice words and group them into geometric blocks as they would appear on a sho-card. 
Round out the circular letters and never unnecessarily crowd a word. Where bolder letters are desired 
a Style D Speedball will produce heavier elements with less strokes (pages 12, 18, 19). When you can 
produce these letters with a large pen, try them proportionately smaller with the other sizes, and then 
make a few simple posters with this alphabet, using the block system of layout shown on pages 84 to 
89. Arrange your copy on the card so it will be easy to read. Simple blocks of copy always simplify 
a layout. 

Suitable pictures to illustrate the poster may be clipped or copied from magazines, adding a few 
touches of color to take away the "stuck on" eflPect. For pasting, rubber cement is preferred because it 
does not curl the clippings or warp the card, and can be easily rubbed oflp if smeared on surface of print. 



30 



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Use a size 12 red sable sho-card brush with any good poster color. Dip into color and then shape brush 

■finger manipulation will produce clean cut strokes. Do not overload brush. . Most sho-card 



64 




on palette to get a sharp working edge A smooth arm movement combined with the necessary 

colors need a little writer and sometimes more mucilage added to make them fiouf freely from the brush. 




67 



BALANCING THE LAYOUT 

eement of "copy." It is a very important subject for 
"Layout" is the printers' word ^^.^ Xr^ive if poorly arranged. Copy containing only a few 
even good lettering, correctly spaced, is ^ ^ut. But copy consisting of many phrases sen- 

words, and perhaps an illustration, is f r^^er handled when it has been carefully divided into 
tences, paragraphs and illustrations can oe ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.j 

appropriate blocks before any attempt is ui ^ ^^^^^ words, illustrations, border orna- 

The quickest way to learn how to ^^'I'^^^^ijJen's building blocks. Group the word blocks into 
ments and color masses as though they ^^J'^J" ^ord is a block in itself), and then balance all 



and attrac- 



larger phrase blocks (though sometimes a sin^, ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^j^^ according to their size an 
pictures, spots of color or decorative "^^sscs wi problems because, instead of a lot of individual 

tion. It is easy to see how this scheme ^^"'""'^^^^ jj^^o a given space. By keeping the blocks simple in 
words, there are only a few masses or S^^^P;, • ^pd effective manner. By making a dummy layout 
shape it is not difficult to arrange them in a p ea ^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^.^ satisfied with the 

on paper and cutting out the different '^l^^^' 3.g4.89.) 

layout before applying the ink. (See page - should not all be done in the same size letter- 

If there is considerable copy to go on a car ^ ^^^^ difference in the size of the 

ing. This would make the poster look iiKe ^.^J^^^^^^-^ of the various words or phrase blocks. Less 
lettering naturally depends upon the ^^/''^^^y^ r f- alphabet harmonizing with the style of letter used 
important blocks are often lettered with 5"^^^'^ j ^d the best of taste to mix Gothic letters with the 



forth; resr;fth;;;p7. It -s not gene^Ily '-^^Z^^' 
Roman and Text styles on the same sno-cara, p r^^^. balanced upon the true center of a card, with 
Strange as it may seem, layouts which f^^-^^j^.^eavy. This is just another of the many tricks our 
equal margins all around, generally appear D ^^^^ of balance make an instinctive effort to counter- 



equai maiginb an aiuuuu, • u nod sense or balance maKe uu iu5uiili.iv(_ i.iiuiL lu cumuci- 

eyes play on us. Artists or letterers with a go Professionals have learned from experience that 

act this effect by placing the copy higher I'^j^ a point that is about five per cent above the 

the most pleasing and effective lay<)uts are Daiaiu-c . usually measured by the eye,^it is called 
actual center of a well-proportioned panel. f .-^^^^ center, your layout problems will be 

the -optical center." When arranging ^.fj^'^l^^^^ the bottom than at the top. 
simplified by allowing thirty per .^^"^.^^.'^"/^^^^^ applied to "Hand Lettering," you may safely 
When you hear the expression J"^;, ^'^,^^.^^1^1 value. The judging of lettering by its resem- 
conclude that it is too good to be ot mucn ^^,^1^ ^^^^ cease to exist as an applied art. All 

blance to type would kill individuality, and j J' -^^^-ipies But though there are many hundreds 

reading characters are adapted from ^l^"^ ^^'^^^f''^^^' ^j.^ no "set-up" job can be compared with the 
of different types of alphabets used in tne P""|^ graceful arrangement and general effectiveness, 
handiwork of the skilled letterer for style, ^eau y, ^ £ ^ _ such alphabets are seldom 

The experienced letterer does not attempt to produce replicas or yp 

designed for rapid construction with card will be found productive of 

_For all kinds of pen lettering, ^^««9J":: ^ rlr.^r and permits the pen to be drawn in anv 

the best results. Its coated surface gives jus the ^^S/^; ^^^^^^ , -P. 
direction with clean-cut strokes. It also produces a better brush^ob. ^ 

„ , . . ft,.- „cad lettering. Many beginners who can make a fair 

Good spaang .s more jmpo^t""* *an good^ m^^^^^ 

alphabet have tremble w.th letter ^P?,^'"f;';.fbf abided A page of lettering properly done has an 
etn'^clrovTr T ^T^l^^ ^^^ ^ ^n^h^'' ^^^^^ 




good starting point: 

1. Different letters and dividing areas seldom occupy like spaces. 

2. Words read better when the spaces between the letters are less than half the space occupied by 
the letters themselves. r^TTT>rvT itt 

3. For convenience, letters may be divided into three ^> 
Irregular, A-F-J-K-L-P-R-T-V-W-X-Y and Z; Circular, B-C-D-G-0-(P)-Q-(R)-S-& and ?. 

4. Ugly gaps between irregular shaped letters can be avoided by fitting them closer together 
according to their shape. 

5. Circular and irregular shaped letters should cut into the spaces between them and the letters 
adjoining their curved or irregular sides, the amount thus taken from the dividing areas 
helps compensate for the extra space created by the form of the letter. 

6. Letters can also be grouped as Narrow, B-E-F-I-J-L-P-S-T-Y and ?; Normal, C-D-G-H-K-O- 
Q-R-U-V-X-Z and &; and Wide, A-M-N and W. 

7. Compressing a wide letter to make it fit into a space that suits a narrow or a normal letter 
causes it to appear blacker than the rest of the letters. And stretching a narrow letter into the 
space of a wide one makes it appear lighter than the rest. 



. 68 



Simplified spacing guide for different letters. 












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This lettering chart illustrates how different combinations should be spaced. The full space as 
it appears between two straight letters is shown by the stippled block marked "A." Block "B" illustrates 
the dividing area between two circular letters. Note how the letters cut into it. Block "C" shows how 
the area appears between a circular and a straight letter. Block "D" shows the area between an irregular 
and a straight letter. Block "E" shows the area between an irregular and a circular letter. Note that 
the extra space at the top and bottom of a circular letter approximately equals what the letter cuts out 
of the dividing area — and the irregular letters offer a similar example that requires closer fitting 

p T" I c: A L 




The examples shown here illustrate how the different combinations work out in use. In the word 
"Spacing" letters of the same size and shape are spaced both ways. Note how legibility and unity 
are destroyed by the mechanical arrangement. Using a "yard-stick" to measure the width or distance 
between different letters seldom produces pleasing results and is generally detrimental to legibility. 




The yard-stick spacing of "Minatown" shows what happens when letters are all fitted into Hke 
areas with the same distance between them. Note how spotty the different letters look, especially the 
M, A and W and how unrelated the irregular letters appear. By making the M, N, A, O and W wider 
and fitting the irregular letters optically to compensate for their shape an even tone is obtained over all. 

<^ OPTICALLY FITTED LETTERS NOT CRAMPED - GOOD UWIT y 



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abc6def9liijlilmnopqr$tui>u>xii}2yvsrfa 

ji0Ci>£fOKijKji:mnopCiii5rut)TDx 

abcAefshiJhtmnopqrstuvwxtf^ CSZ 

ABCDEFGHUKonnmopms tuuvvwmxifz 



76 



^ttflli^h ; 



'^TKc $|>^ an6 

can be handled 
tWtru$e for 

'She fine 5crjfs: 
arc put on wilK 
lh< sonic pen Im 

ouV ivim corner 
Of markii^ lip 



A. 



Aslrikin^ comparison ^hoiuin^ Ihe mulls oHamcir i^imply using iiffcmt $t;^l<>^pwiiball pen 











77 




'o 



^ § 



80 



SUGGEST 



•ONS FOR POSTERS AND BORDERS 

STRENGTH ■ ^ 




TAPERING LINCS SUGGESTING m\D 



POWER 



BOLD STRAIGHT LINES WITH WIDER BASE SUGCEST SOLIDlTy.^ CURVED LINES -CPMMON BASE - NO JARRING ELEMENTS 




J"^'^°'«SIJ6GESTEp BY RESISTANCE, 




AND SLANTING BASE DROOPING GRACEFUL CURVES SUGGEST ABSENCE OF RESISTANCE " STRAIGHT LINES MEETING AT SHARP ANGLES • AU CURVES EUMlNWtD ? 



WIST 




m-UdLM/I O LUXURY 



9^= 



[ 



DEVOID O^AKiy SUGGESTION OF ACTION . SPIRAL LINES SUGGESTING RHYTHMIC MCfTlON GRACEFULLY INTERTWINING CURVES ■ SUPERFLUOUS DECORATION 



STAGGEREOJAGGEDLY BROKEN. 




TAPERED STRAIGHT UNEJ m&, FOCUSING ATTENTION BY CONCENTRIC OR CONVERGING LINES. JARRING MASSES- LINES tVEW WAY -COHERENCE LACKING 




A Simplified System /or 
enlarging or rMucinj pictures 



J. .J f- 

iPCflFCCT LEirGRS OH ORNAMENTS 
|C>0 SOT MAKE PGRFECT POSTEflSj_ 



IS MUCH MORE 
IMPORTANT THAN 
EITHER , PERFECT 

ttlrii^iNer 

|>ECORATIQ|^ 

i T ^4^5 fu 5 ENT~WHb CAnI" 
' AaRANGC- copy INTO 
' SIMPLC- GROUPS AND 
I BALANCE THC-SE BLOCKS, 
I ACCORDING TO THeiR| 
I STRENGTH Mta IMPORTANCE, 
I HAS LCA«NCD THE SECRET 1 
I OH EFf-ECTIVe LAYOUT' 



MECHANICAL 
SPACING 
OF UNIFORM 
LETTERS AND 
MARGlMS OF 
EQUAL WIDTH' 
MAK[ A POSTER 
IMONOTONOUS 



THE GFFECTIVG USE OF 

CONTRAST 

POWERFUL 
HEADLINES 

WITH THE REST OF THE 
copy AftaANGED IN 
SUBCHiOINftTE GROUPS 

BALANCED 

ON OPTICAL CEKTER 

• • A D • • 
A GENEROUS WSE 
OF QLANK SPACE 

LIBERALMARGINS 

ARE THE FIRST AIDS 
TO A GOOD LAVOUT 



AG0Of> INVESTMENT IN 
HYLE- COMFORT- LONO WE^« 






I , «f?!t!f*! 

Wfect Letters; 1 

, or ornamental I ] 

[ I fL)ccoratiorL9,' ^ 

iCdrcful atliiiition to layoutj 
•will go a long way towards-' 
Imal'in^ mediocre le tiering 
'look ■ like • a • work ■ of • art* 



;bLu/jliui>.', trie cinl'-i'.'i il • 
;pVit dsea mto snnj^le bb'.ki;', 



POOR LAVOUr 8 AOL/ JUMOL-tiD 



Y^ ss^ .pew 




SimiSmL 



ALL 

SHIES-! 



ALL 
' STYIIS 



NEPTUNE KNiTTINlaCa 



OOOD lAVOUr OPTIC x\UV iJAiANCEO 



1 



SEEDS 



TC«2JL5 



MAIN XIX* 



FOR A BEAUTIFUt 

SUPPLY CO. 

IVIAIUKCT f AT IS<^ 
WMOLESALE!^ < < UTAIL 





LET-fERINa 

w^sJfe If Irritates 




FOR A BEAUTIFUt 

mf 

SUPPLY co; 

SEEDS TQDtS 





WHOLESALE < < RETAIL 
VyiARKCT «T. AT Ift^ 



8.S 




86 





a 



MAMEI ©IF FiaWO- 



all tU lai««t »cW ppMij) " 




Crowded layouts are confusing - the co/^y runs together. 




llalloweeii 





PROFITAILE 

ADVAMCfD 
AUT.STUKHT 





%kments of Cayovi'' h7iamB,%mustratwn,3' ohject,4--capiwtt, S'Cvpj, ^'^^/ '^'^^'f^'^ ^ 



88 




89 



SPEEDBALL SYMBOLS 
DRAMATIZE MAPS 
AND CHARTS 




l4JovC ^ ^ 



CAME 
FISH 




*VAR PRODUCTION 





^JMPLIFIED ACTION FIGURES 



"Pjr 




DAIRY PRODUCTS 



HORSEPOWER 



91 



SketcKitig Nature with tKe Spcedball t)ca 




92 




94 




95 




96 




Advertising Layouts and Posters 

23, 68, 84-90 

Advertising Moods 38 

Architects' Alphabets 26 

Basic Alphabets and Elements 4 

Border Designs 52 (color), 79, 82, 83 

Brush Alphabets 51, 63-67, 77 

Draftsmen's Alphabet 56 

Elementary Exercises 6-9 

Elements of Basic Alphabets 4 

Engrossing 48-52 (color), 72-80 

Evolution of Letter Styles 2 

GOTHIC ALPHABETS 

Beginner's 10, 11 

Block 70 

Block, Half Poster 5 

Brush, Sho-Card 66-67 

Brush, Spurred 63 

Carnival 57 

Carved Caps 70 

Condensed Poster, Style A 41 

Creations 34 

Cut-in Display 53 

Draftsmen's 56 

Elementary Exercises 6-9 



Page 

Carnival 57 

Design Poster 41 

Divinity 25 

Modern Caps and Lower Case 41 

Rope 62 

Title, Style B 28 

Vanitie 38 

Ornamental Penmanship 50 (color), 72, 80 

Pen Sketching 92 

Pens, Their Use and Care 3 

Posters. . . ,23, 45-47, 51 (color), 81, 84-90 
Price Tickets 96 

ROMAN ALPHABETS 

America, Style D 43 

Bold Display 59 

Bold Italics, Condensed 19 

Bold Italics, Style D 18,22,23 

Bold Single Stroke, Style D 12, 22 

Brush, Sho-Card 64-65 

Built-Up, Style D 37 

Bulletin 71 

Classic 42 

Formal (Versal Book Hand) 33 

Free, Style B 35 



20 
56 
32 
13 
60 
54 
24 
57 





Italics 

Line 

Novelty 

Round 

Shadow ^ 

Shadow Script . . . .-^X]!^ 

Slant Script . . .^TvYvT, 

Speedball ..^.\} 

Squeezed Headline 61 

Text, Style A 20 

Vertical Manuscript 6 

Vertical Script, Style A 27 

How to Hold the P|in or Brush 1 

Initials, Decorari^V '. 58 

(in color) 4> Y . . 48, 49, 52 

ITALIC ALPHABETS 

Architects' 26 

Bold Roman 18, 22, 23 

Bold Roman, Condensed 19 

Display 71 

Divinity ^ \ . .^ r^. 25 

Gothic ^^VS . .... 20 

Roman, € . . • -^VC^T. . . .A-Cj^ l 
Slant Script . . . clVV • • • • • 24 

Speed D . .,.^.<\?. . . . . r-yrP 

Stencil, Roman . . . .' 54 

Swash, Roman 25 

Layout 23, 68, 84-90 

Lily Poster 81 

Manuscript, Bold Roman, Style D . . , . 23 

Manuscript, Vertical, Style B 6, 7 

New Alphabets, How Made 2, 3 1, 46 



\\S> 



Gay Ninety 
History and Use 
Italics, Style C . • j^f^ 
Metropolitan Pbs^ v*. 

New Alphabets, How Made 2, 31 

Personality Script 40 

Printers', Style B 34 

Roman Numerals 96 

Seventeenth Century, Ornamental. . 43 
Single Stroke, Style C . yo* • • 

^pHt Script • ls<3P 

Stencil Italics .... .iAV^- • -^^^^ 
Stunt ^\y.....^:<S^..l% 

Style A n& ^ v- G^' 

Swash ItaliS; StyWS M . . . .W^^'> 
Vanitie .C>i^} 




Western 
SCRIPT ALF 
Advertising 
Personality 



Round Hand ^ 



NOVELTY ALPHABETS 

America 43 

B Symphony 41 

Bold Roman Display 59 

Builders , 60 




Shadow . . . !-rrr> 54 

Slant : 24 

Split 39 

, Style D, Vertical 29 

Vertical • 27 

^ Westonius Script Text 73 

Serifs and Their Use 4,20, 31 

Spacing Letters 68, 69 

Stick Figures 93-95 

Symbols 91 

TEXT ALPHABETS 

Black 78 

Engrossers' 76, 79, 80 

German 76 

Gothic, Style A 20 

Old English 51.74.77 

Ornamental 73 

Speedball, Styles C and D 76 

Uncial Alphabet 79